Philosophical Beliefs


Here is a list of philosophical beliefs. Are there any you think I’ve missed? Or any that shouldn’t be on the list? Leave a comment below. Enjoy!

AbsolutismThe belief in absolute, universal truths or principles, especially in ethics or metaphysics.
AbsurdismA philosophical belief stating that human efforts to find meaning in life will ultimately fail due to the inherent meaninglessness of the universe.
Action PhilosophyA philosophical perspective emphasizing the importance of action and personal experience in understanding reality and truth.
Actual IdealismThe belief that reality is ultimately mental or spiritual in nature, rather than material.
ActualismThe philosophical doctrine that only actual things or events exist, rather than potential or possible ones.
Advaita VedantaA non-dualistic school of Hindu philosophy that emphasizes the unity of the individual soul (Atman) with the ultimate reality (Brahman).
Aesthetic RealismThe belief that reality and aesthetics are interconnected and that beauty can be objective and intrinsic.
AestheticismThe doctrine that aesthetic values are crucial and have intrinsic value, often emphasizing the importance of art and beauty in life.
AestheticsThe philosophical study of beauty, art, and the nature of aesthetic experiences.
AfrocentrismA cultural and philosophical perspective emphasizing the importance of African culture, heritage, and history.
Agential RealismThe belief that human agency and social factors play a fundamental role in shaping reality and truth.
Agnostic TheismThe belief that the existence of God or gods is unknown or unknowable, but still held as a possibility.
AgnosticismThe philosophical view that the truth or existence of certain ultimate questions, such as the existence of God, is unknown or unknowable.
AltruismThe belief in or practice of selfless concern for the well-being of others.
AnarchismA political and philosophical belief advocating for the absence of government and the organization of society based on voluntary cooperation between individuals.
AnimismThe belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence or soul.
Anomalous MonismA philosophical view proposing that mental events and physical events are distinct, but there are no strict psychophysical laws connecting them.
AnthropocentrismThe belief that human beings are the central or most significant species on Earth.
Anti-realismThe philosophical view that reality, truth, or the existence of a particular thing is dependent on human perception or thought and does not exist independently of the mind.
AntinatalismThe philosophical belief that procreation is morally wrong or undesirable.
AntinomianismThe belief that moral laws do not apply to certain individuals, especially those considered to be spiritually enlightened.
AntireductionismThe rejection of the idea that complex phenomena can be explained by reducing them to simpler, fundamental components.
ApatheismA lack of interest or concern regarding the existence or non-existence of God or gods.
Applied EthicsThe philosophical study of moral values and ethical issues in specific practical contexts, such as medicine or business.
AristotelianismThe philosophy based on the ideas of Aristotle, emphasizing the importance of virtue, ethics, and naturalism.
Artificial IntelligenceThe branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers.
AsceticismThe practice of severe self-discipline and abstention from indulgence, often for religious or philosophical reasons.
AtheismThe lack of belief in the existence of God or gods.
AuthoritarianismA political philosophy advocating for strong centralized authority and limited individual freedoms.
AverroismThe interpretation of Aristotle’s works by Averroes, emphasizing the compatibility of Aristotelian philosophy with Islamic theology.
AvicennismA school of Islamic philosophy based on the works of Avicenna (Ibn Sina), emphasizing the importance of reason and intellect in understanding reality.
AxiologyThe philosophical study of values, including ethics, aesthetics, and ontology.
BayesianismA philosophical and statistical approach based on Bayesian probability theory, emphasizing the updating of beliefs based on evidence and prior knowledge.
BehaviorismA psychological and philosophical perspective focusing on observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes.
BioconservatismThe ethical and philosophical view advocating for caution and ethical consideration in the advancement of biotechnologies and genetic engineering.
BiosophyA philosophical perspective exploring the relationship between living organisms and the universe, often incorporating spiritual and metaphysical elements.
Body DualismThe philosophical belief in the existence of both a physical body and a non-physical mind or soul.
BuddhismA spiritual and philosophical tradition based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), emphasizing the attainment of enlightenment and liberation from suffering.
CapitalismAn economic and political system emphasizing private ownership of the means of production, market-driven competition, and individual entrepreneurship.
CartesianismThe philosophical system based on the ideas of René Descartes, emphasizing the distinction between mind and body and the primacy of individual consciousness.
Categorical ImperativeA moral principle proposed by Immanuel Kant, stating that an action is morally obligatory if it can be universally willed without contradiction.
ChanceThe philosophical concept referring to events or outcomes that occur without apparent cause or predictability.
CharvakaAn ancient Indian philosophical school advocating for materialism, skepticism of afterlife, and the pursuit of pleasure and happiness in the present life.
Chinese NaturalismA philosophical tradition in Chinese thought emphasizing harmony with nature, balance, and the interconnectedness of all things.
Christian ExistentialismA philosophical and theological perspective combining Christian beliefs with existentialist ideas, emphasizing individual freedom and responsibility in the face of existence.
Christian HumanismA philosophical and cultural movement emphasizing the compatibility of Christian faith with humanism, promoting education, classical learning, and social reform.
Christian NeoplatonismA philosophical and theological synthesis of Christian doctrines with Neoplatonic ideas, emphasizing the existence of a transcendent reality and the ascent of the soul towards God.
Closed IndividualismThe philosophical view that personal identity remains constant throughout an individual’s life, with a distinct separation between one’s own identity and others.
CognitivismThe philosophical stance asserting that moral judgments express propositions and can be true or false.
ColorA philosophical inquiry into the nature and perception of colors, exploring questions about the nature of color, its representation, and subjective experiences.
Common SenseA philosophical perspective emphasizing the importance of ordinary, practical reasoning and everyday experiences in understanding reality.
CommunismA political and economic ideology advocating for the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, often associated with Marxist theory.
CommunitarianismA philosophical and political perspective emphasizing the importance of communal values, social cohesion, and community participation in society.
CompatibilismThe belief that free will and determinism are compatible, allowing for moral responsibility despite the existence of determinism.
Compatibilism And IncompatibilismA philosophical inquiry into the compatibility between free will and determinism, exploring whether they can coexist or are mutually exclusive.
ConceptualismThe philosophical view that universals, such as abstract concepts or properties, exist as mental concepts in the minds of individuals.
Confirmation HolismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the interconnectedness of beliefs and the holistic nature of empirical testing and confirmation.
ConfucianismA philosophical and ethical system based on the teachings of Confucius, emphasizing moral virtue, filial piety, and social harmony.
ConsequentialismAn ethical theory asserting that the morality of an action is determined by its outcomes or consequences, often emphasizing the greatest good for the greatest number.
ConservatismA political and social philosophy advocating for the preservation of traditional institutions, practices, and values, resisting rapid societal changes.
ConstructivismA philosophical perspective asserting that knowledge and understanding are actively constructed by individuals based on their experiences and interpretations.
Constructivist EpistemologyA branch of philosophy exploring the nature of knowledge and the process of learning, emphasizing the active construction of knowledge by individuals.
ConventionalismThe philosophical view that certain concepts, truths, or principles are conventional and depend on social or cultural agreements.
CosmicismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the insignificance of humanity in the vastness of the cosmos, often associated with cosmic horror literature.
CosmopolitanismA philosophical and ethical stance advocating for the idea that all human beings belong to a single global community, transcending national boundaries.
Critical RationalismA philosophical approach emphasizing the importance of criticism, skepticism, and the testing of hypotheses to advance scientific knowledge.
Critical RealismA philosophical perspective asserting that reality exists independently of human perception and is accessible through critical inquiry and scientific methods.
Critical TheoryA philosophical and sociopolitical approach focusing on critique, social critique, and the examination of power structures and societal inequalities.
CultureA philosophical inquiry into the beliefs, customs, arts, and social institutions of a particular group, exploring their significance and impact on human society.
CyberfeminismA feminist perspective examining the intersection of gender, technology, and cyberspace, often critiquing and challenging gender biases in digital environments.
CynicismA philosophical school advocating for the rejection of conventional desires and social norms, emphasizing self-sufficiency, virtue, and living in accordance with nature.
DaseinA concept in existential philosophy, referring to the unique and individual experience of human existence, including one’s feelings, thoughts, and actions.
DeconstructionA philosophical and literary approach, often associated with Jacques Derrida, emphasizing the analysis of language, texts, and concepts to reveal hidden meanings and contradictions.
DeismThe belief in a distant, non-intervening, and impersonal deity, often associated with the idea that the universe is governed by natural laws.
DenialismThe rejection or denial of established scientific, historical, or empirical facts, often driven by ideological, political, or religious motives.
Deontic LogicA branch of logic dealing with deontic concepts, such as obligation, permission, and prohibition, exploring the logical relations between moral statements.
DeontologyAn ethical theory asserting that the morality of an action is determined by its adherence to moral rules or duties, regardless of the consequences.
DepressionismA philosophical perspective exploring the nature of depression, its causes, and its impact on human consciousness and well-being.
DeterminismThe philosophical belief that all events and actions, including human decisions, are predetermined and inevitable, often due to the laws of nature or divine will.
DialecticA method of argument and philosophical inquiry involving the exchange of opposing ideas and viewpoints, leading to the development of new insights and understanding.
Dialectical MaterialismA Marxist philosophical approach emphasizing the importance of dialectical reasoning and the material conditions of society in understanding historical and social developments.
DidacticismThe philosophical approach of providing moral or instructional lessons in literature, art, or other forms of expression.
DiscordianismA humorous and absurdist philosophical belief system, often presented as a parody religion, emphasizing chaos, randomness, and the worship of Eris, the goddess of discord.
Divine Command TheoryAn ethical theory asserting that the morality of an action is determined by whether it aligns with the commands or will of God.
Dual-aspect MonismA philosophical view positing that reality has both mental and physical aspects, and both mind and matter are inseparable manifestations of the same underlying substance.
DualismThe philosophical belief in the existence of two fundamentally distinct and irreducible substances, often referring to the mind-body dualism of Descartes.
Dualistic CosmologyA cosmological perspective positing the existence of dual or opposing cosmic forces, often representing good and evil, light and darkness, or order and chaos.
DvaitaA school of Vedanta philosophy emphasizing the distinction between the individual soul (Jivatman) and the ultimate reality (Brahman), asserting their separate existence.
EcocentrismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the intrinsic value of nature and ecosystems, often advocating for environmental conservation and sustainable practices.
EcumenismA philosophical and religious movement promoting unity and cooperation among different religious traditions and denominations.
EgalitarianismA social and political philosophy advocating for equality and equal rights among individuals, often addressing issues related to gender, race, and socioeconomic status.
EgocentrismA cognitive and philosophical perspective where an individual interprets the world from their own subjective point of view, often exhibiting self-centeredness.
EgoismThe philosophical belief that individuals act out of self-interest and that self-centeredness is the foundation of ethical behavior.
Eliminative MaterialismA philosophical view asserting that mental states and consciousness do not have an objective existence, and therefore, the concepts related to them, such as beliefs and desires, should be eliminated or reduced to neurological processes.
EmotivismAn ethical theory positing that moral statements express the speaker’s emotions, attitudes, or preferences rather than objective facts, and they are not subject to truth or falsity.
Empirical RealismA philosophical perspective asserting that the external world exists independently of our perceptions and can be known through empirical observation and experience.
EmpiricismA philosophical approach emphasizing the importance of sensory experience, observation, and experimentation as the foundation of knowledge and understanding.
Ephesian SchoolAn ancient Greek philosophical school associated with Heraclitus of Ephesus, emphasizing the doctrine of change and the unity of opposites in the natural world.
EpicureanismA philosophical system founded by Epicurus, promoting the pursuit of pleasure, tranquility, and the avoidance of pain as the highest goals of human life.
EpiphenomenalismA philosophical view asserting that mental states, such as consciousness, are byproducts of physical processes and do not have causal influence over the physical world.
Epistemic ContextualismA philosophical theory suggesting that the truth value or meaning of knowledge claims depends on the context in which they are made.
Epistemic InvariantismA philosophical stance asserting that the truth conditions for knowledge are the same across different contexts, contrary to epistemic contextualism.
Epistemic RelativismA philosophical position claiming that knowledge and truth are relative and vary depending on the perspective, culture, or context of the knower.
Epistemic ReliabilismA theory of knowledge asserting that a belief is justified and knowledge if it is produced by a reliable cognitive process, regardless of the subject’s awareness.
Epistemological NihilismA skeptical position asserting that knowledge, and often even justified beliefs, is impossible, leading to the rejection of the possibility of knowledge.
Epistemological SolipsismA philosophical position asserting that only one’s own mind and its contents can be known to exist, questioning the existence of an external reality.
EpistemologyThe branch of philosophy exploring the nature, scope, and limits of knowledge, including the study of belief, truth, justification, and the methods of inquiry.
EsotericismA philosophical and religious approach involving secret or hidden knowledge accessible to a select few, often associated with mystical or occult teachings.
EssentialismA philosophical perspective positing that objects or entities have inherent, essential qualities or characteristics that define their identity and distinguish them from others.
EternalismA philosophical belief in the existence of eternal, unchanging truths or realities, often applied to the nature of time and the universe.
Ethical AbsolutismA moral theory asserting that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of the context or consequences, and can be universally applied.
Ethical AltruismA moral theory advocating for actions that benefit others, emphasizing selflessness and concern for the well-being of others as the foundation of ethical behavior.
Ethical Cultural RelativismA moral perspective asserting that ethical values and practices are relative to specific cultures, societies, or communities, and there are no universal moral standards.
Ethical EgoismA moral theory advocating for actions that maximize self-interest, emphasizing individualism and self-centeredness as the basis of ethical decisions.
Ethical EmpiricismA moral theory suggesting that ethical judgments are based on empirical observations and experiences, and moral knowledge is derived from sensory data.
Ethical EudaimonismA moral theory asserting that the highest ethical good is the pursuit of personal happiness and flourishing, often associated with Aristotle’s philosophy.
Ethical IntuitionismA moral theory positing that ethical principles and moral truths can be known directly through intuition or rational reflection, without relying on empirical evidence.
Ethical NaturalismA moral theory asserting that ethical values and principles are grounded in natural facts or states, often associated with naturalistic philosophies.
Ethical Non-cognitivismA metaethical theory asserting that moral statements do not express propositions and do not have truth values, but rather express emotions, attitudes, or preferences.
Ethical ObjectivismA moral theory claiming that there are objective moral truths or facts, independent of individual beliefs or cultural attitudes, and they can be discovered through reason.
Ethical PluralismA moral theory asserting that there are multiple, equally valid ethical principles or values, and moral truth is complex and multifaceted, accommodating diverse perspectives.
Ethical RelativismA metaethical theory claiming that moral judgments are relative to specific individuals, cultures, or societies, and there are no objective or universal moral standards.
Ethical SkepticismA philosophical position expressing doubt or uncertainty about the existence of objective moral truths or the possibility of moral knowledge.
Ethical SubjectivismA metaethical theory positing that moral judgments are expressions of individual subjectivity, emotions, or preferences, and their truth depends on individual attitudes.
Ethical SupervenienceA metaethical theory suggesting that ethical properties or truths supervene on natural or non-ethical properties, meaning ethical changes depend on natural changes.
Ethical UniversalismA moral theory asserting that there are universal moral principles applicable to all individuals and cultures, providing a foundation for objective ethical standards.
EthicsThe branch of philosophy dealing with moral principles, values, and concepts, exploring questions about right and wrong, good and bad, and the nature of ethical decisions.
EudaimonismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the pursuit of happiness, well-being, and human flourishing as the ultimate goals of life, often associated with Aristotelian ethics.
Existential PhenomenologyA philosophical approach exploring human existence and subjective experience, emphasizing individual freedom, choice, and the search for meaning in life.
ExistentialismA philosophical and literary movement focusing on individual existence, freedom, and responsibility, often emphasizing the absence of inherent meaning in life.
ExternalismA philosophical position asserting that mental states and knowledge can be externally dependent, meaning they can be influenced by factors outside the individual’s mind.
FallibilismA philosophical stance acknowledging the possibility of error or the fallibility of knowledge, emphasizing the need for openness to revision and skepticism in beliefs.
FascismA political ideology and philosophy emphasizing authoritarianism, nationalism, and dictatorial power, often associated with oppressive and totalitarian regimes.
FatalismThe philosophical belief that events, including human actions and decisions, are predetermined and inevitable, leading to the idea that individuals have no free will.
FeminismA social and political movement advocating for the equal rights, opportunities, and treatment of women, challenging gender-based discrimination and advocating for gender equality.
FideismA philosophical stance asserting that religious faith is independent of reason and cannot be justified or understood through rational arguments or evidence.
Filial PietyA Confucian virtue emphasizing respect, loyalty, and obedience towards one’s parents and ancestors, considered a fundamental XXXXX
FoundationalismAn epistemological theory positing that knowledge and justified beliefs are grounded in certain foundational beliefs or self-evident truths, forming a secure and reliable foundation for other beliefs.
Free WillThe philosophical concept that individuals have the ability to make choices and decisions independent of deterministic forces, implying moral responsibility for one’s actions.
FunctionalismA philosophical perspective asserting that mental states and processes are defined by their function or role within a larger cognitive system, emphasizing their purpose rather than their physical or neural properties.
FundamentalismA religious or ideological movement advocating for strict adherence to traditional or fundamental beliefs and practices, often characterized by opposition to secularism, modernism, or liberal interpretations of the faith.
FutilityThe philosophical notion that certain actions or endeavors are inherently meaningless, pointless, or lacking in purpose, often associated with existential despair or nihilism.
GnosticismA diverse religious and philosophical movement emphasizing gnosis, or direct knowledge of the divine, and the importance of spiritual salvation through mystical insights and enlightenment.
HedonismA philosophical doctrine asserting that pleasure or happiness is the highest good and the ultimate goal of human life, leading to the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain.
HegelianismA philosophical system based on the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, emphasizing the dialectical process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis to achieve historical and spiritual progress.
HenotheismA religious belief system acknowledging the existence of multiple gods but worshiping or recognizing the supremacy of a single god, often associated with ancient polytheistic religions.
HermeneuticsThe philosophical discipline focused on the interpretation and understanding of texts, especially religious, literary, or historical works, exploring the principles of textual analysis and meaning.
HermeticismA philosophical and religious tradition rooted in the teachings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, emphasizing spiritual and mystical knowledge, alchemy, astrology, and the unity of the divine and the cosmos.
HeterophenomenologyA philosophical approach proposed by Daniel Dennett, combining phenomenology and scientific inquiry to study consciousness and subjective experience from a third-person perspective.
HinduismOne of the world’s oldest religions, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and practices rooted in ancient Indian scriptures, emphasizing concepts such as karma, dharma, and the pursuit of spiritual liberation (moksha).
Historical MaterialismA key concept in Marxist philosophy, positing that historical developments and social changes are driven by material conditions, economic factors, and class struggles, forming the basis for societal transformations.
HistoricismA philosophical approach emphasizing the importance of historical context, cultural factors, and social developments in understanding human actions, beliefs, and institutions.
HolismA philosophical perspective asserting that the whole is more significant than its individual parts, emphasizing the interconnectedness and interdependence of various elements in a system.
HongakuA concept in Japanese Buddhism, particularly in Tendai and Jodo Shinshu traditions, referring to the innate enlightenment or Buddha-nature inherent in all sentient beings, suggesting the potential for enlightenment in everyone.
HumanismA philosophical and ethical perspective emphasizing human dignity, agency, and the potential for human beings to achieve self-realization, knowledge, and moral virtue without relying on supernatural beliefs.
Humanistic NaturalismA worldview combining humanism and naturalism, asserting that human values, ethics, and meaning can be derived from naturalistic principles and human experiences, without the need for supernatural explanations.
HumanitarianismA moral and social philosophy advocating for the promotion of human welfare, social justice, and the alleviation of suffering, often manifested through charitable actions, advocacy, and humanitarian aid.
HylozoismA philosophical concept positing that all matter possesses life or vitality, suggesting that even inanimate objects have inherent life forces or consciousness.
IdeaismA philosophical perspective asserting the primacy of ideas, mental concepts, or perceptions in the nature of reality, suggesting that the mind or consciousness plays a fundamental role in shaping the world.
Ideal Observer TheoryA metaethical theory proposing that moral judgments are based on the perspective of a hypothetical, unbiased, and rational observer who possesses full information and impartiality, determining the moral rightness or wrongness of actions.
IdealismA broad philosophical category encompassing various perspectives emphasizing the primacy of ideas, consciousness, or mental phenomena in the nature of reality, often contrasted with materialism.
IdentityismA philosophical concept focusing on the identity of individuals or objects, exploring questions of personal identity, selfhood, and the criteria for the persistence of identity over time.
Ideological CriticismA method of analyzing literature, art, or media to uncover underlying ideologies, beliefs, or social values expressed through the work, examining how these ideologies shape the narrative or artistic expression.
IgnosticismA perspective asserting that the concept of God or gods is poorly defined or meaningless, rendering theological discussions irrelevant until a coherent and well-defined concept of the divine is presented.
IllegalismA philosophical and political doctrine challenging established laws and social norms, advocating for radical actions, subversion, or rebellion against oppressive systems, often associated with anarchism and anti-authoritarianism.
IlluminationismA philosophical and mystical doctrine emphasizing the direct illumination of the soul by the divine or spiritual knowledge, allowing individuals to attain enlightenment and experience higher truths.
IllusionismA philosophical position suggesting that reality, including the physical world and sensory experiences, is illusory or deceptive, challenging the reliability of human perception and understanding.
IndividualismA philosophical and political perspective emphasizing the value and autonomy of the individual, promoting personal freedom, self-reliance, and the protection of individual rights and interests.
InductionismA philosophical approach emphasizing the use of inductive reasoning, observations, and empirical evidence to form generalizations, theories, or scientific laws, emphasizing the importance of empirical observations in knowledge acquisition.
Informal LogicA branch of logic focusing on everyday reasoning, argumentation, and critical thinking, exploring the principles of sound reasoning and the identification of fallacies in ordinary language arguments.
InnatismA philosophical position asserting that certain knowledge, ideas, or concepts are innate to the human mind and do not require external experiences for their acquisition, challenging empiricism.
Instrumental RationalityA concept in decision theory and philosophy of action, referring to the rational pursuit of goals and objectives, selecting means or actions that maximize the chances of achieving desired outcomes.
InstrumentalismA philosophical perspective suggesting that scientific theories or concepts are valuable if they are useful in explaining and predicting phenomena, emphasizing their instrumental function rather than their truth or correspondence to reality.
InteractionismA philosophical position asserting that the mind and body interact with each other, influencing each other’s functions, experiences, and states, challenging dualism and advocating for a holistic understanding of the mind-body relationship.
InternalismA position in epistemology and ethics asserting that certain factors relevant to justification or moral evaluation are internal to the individual’s perspective, such as beliefs or intentions, contrasting with externalism.
IntuitionismAn ethical theory asserting that moral truths or principles are self-evident and can be known through direct intuition or immediate awareness, without the need for empirical observation or reasoning.
IrrealismA philosophical position denying the objective reality or truth of certain phenomena, concepts, or entities, often applied to abstract objects, universals, or fictional entities, challenging their existence or meaningfulness.
JainismAn ancient Indian religious tradition emphasizing non-violence (ahimsa), asceticism, and spiritual purification, advocating for the liberation of the soul from the cycle of rebirth through ethical conduct and self-discipline.
JingoismAn extreme form of nationalism characterized by aggressive patriotism, advocating for aggressive or bellicose foreign policies, often accompanied by xenophobia and a disdain for other nations or cultures.
JucheThe official state ideology of North Korea, developed by Kim Il-sung, emphasizing self-reliance, nationalism, and the need for complete independence from foreign influences, shaping political, economic, and cultural policies in the country.
Just War TheoryA moral and ethical framework providing criteria for evaluating the justifiability of wars or military interventions, specifying conditions under which a war can be considered morally justified and ethically permissible.
KabbalahA mystical and esoteric tradition within Judaism, exploring the hidden meanings of the Torah, divine emanations, and the spiritual realm, emphasizing the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment, union with God, and understanding the mysteries of creation.
KantianismA philosophical perspective based on the ideas of Immanuel Kant, emphasizing the importance of moral duty, categorical imperatives, and the autonomy of the individual will, shaping ethical and epistemological inquiries.
Legal PositivismA legal theory asserting that the validity and authority of laws are derived solely from established social conventions, agreements, or the will of the sovereign, without necessarily reflecting moral or natural law principles.
LegalismAn ancient Chinese philosophy and political doctrine advocating for strict adherence to laws, rules, and harsh punishments, emphasizing the role of a strong central authority in maintaining social order and stability.
LeninismA political and ideological theory derived from the works of Vladimir Lenin, emphasizing the role of a vanguard party, revolutionary struggle, and the establishment of a socialist state through proletarian revolution, shaping Marxist-Leninist movements.
LiberalismA political and philosophical ideology emphasizing individual rights, democracy, the rule of law, limited government intervention, and market-based economies, advocating for social and political freedoms within a framework of civil liberties.
LibertarianismA political philosophy advocating for minimal government intervention, individual freedom, free markets, and the protection of property rights, emphasizing self-ownership and voluntary interactions, often associated with laissez-faire capitalism.
LinguisticsThe scientific study of language, encompassing the analysis of linguistic structures, sounds, meanings, and social aspects of language use, exploring language variation, acquisition, and communication patterns.
Logical AtomismA philosophical theory associated with Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein, positing that complex propositions can be analyzed into simpler atomic propositions, forming the basis of logical analysis and language understanding.
Logical EmpiricismA philosophical movement emphasizing the importance of empirical evidence, logical analysis, and scientific verification in the evaluation of knowledge claims, rejecting metaphysical or unverifiable assertions as meaningless.
Logical HolismA perspective in philosophy of language and epistemology asserting that the meaning of a statement or term depends on the entire system of language, beliefs, and context, challenging reductionism and atomism in linguistic analysis.
Logical PositivismA philosophical movement emphasizing the verification principle, asserting that meaningful statements must be empirically verifiable or analytically true, rejecting metaphysical claims as nonsensical or meaningless.
LogiciansScholars and philosophers specialized in the study of logic, including formal systems, reasoning patterns, deductive and inductive arguments, fallacies, and the foundations of valid and sound reasoning.
LogicismA philosophical position advocating that mathematics can be reduced to logic, suggesting that mathematical truths are logical truths, and mathematical entities can be defined in purely logical terms, challenging the independence of mathematics from logic.
LuddismA social and philosophical movement protesting against the introduction of industrial machinery and automation, often due to concerns about unemployment, dehumanization, or the loss of traditional artisan skills.
ManichaeismAn ancient religious and philosophical system founded by Mani, emphasizing the dualistic conflict between light and darkness, good and evil, spiritual and material realms, shaping beliefs about cosmic struggle and salvation.
MaoismA political and ideological theory developed by Mao Zedong, emphasizing the role of peasants and revolutionary struggle, advocating for continuous revolution, class struggle, and the establishment of a socialist society through mass mobilization.
MarxismA socio-economic and political theory developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, emphasizing historical materialism, class struggle, and the eventual establishment of a classless, communist society, shaping revolutionary movements and socialist ideologies.
MaterialismA philosophical stance asserting that reality, including the mind and consciousness, is fundamentally material or physical in nature, rejecting supernatural or immaterial explanations, often associated with naturalism and physicalism.
MathematicismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the foundational role of mathematics in understanding the structure of reality, suggesting that mathematical entities and relationships are fundamental to the fabric of the universe.
MaximA concise expression of a moral principle, rule, or general truth, often presented as a guiding principle for ethical conduct or decision-making, reflecting a fundamental belief or value.
Medical EthicsA branch of ethics focusing on moral issues and dilemmas in the field of medicine and healthcare, addressing topics such as patient autonomy, informed consent, medical decision-making, and the allocation of healthcare resources.
MedievalismA cultural and intellectual movement inspired by the Middle Ages, emphasizing medieval art, literature, architecture, and historical themes, often associated with nostalgia for the past and a romanticized view of medieval culture.
MentalismA philosophical position asserting the primacy of the mind or consciousness in the nature of reality, suggesting that mental phenomena are fundamental, shaping perceptions, experiences, and the external world.
Mereological NihilismA metaphysical view denying the existence of composite objects or wholes, asserting that only basic building blocks or atomic entities exist, challenging our common-sense belief in macroscopic objects.
Mereological UniversalismA metaphysical view asserting that everything is a part of some larger whole or composite object, suggesting that any collection of entities forms a whole, challenging the idea of genuine ontological distinctions between objects.
MerismA rhetorical device or figure of speech involving the combination of contrasting parts to create a complete whole, often used poetically or metaphorically to convey entirety or inclusiveness.
MetaphilosophyThe philosophical study of the nature, aims, methods, and foundational assumptions of philosophy itself, exploring questions about the scope of philosophical inquiry, the boundaries of knowledge, and the nature of philosophical problems.
Metaphysical NaturalismA metaphysical worldview asserting that the natural, physical world is the only reality, rejecting supernatural or spiritual dimensions, and asserting that all phenomena, including consciousness and mental states, can be explained by natural laws and processes.
MetaphysicsA branch of philosophy exploring fundamental questions about the nature of reality, existence, causality, time, space, mind, and the relationship between the physical and non-physical aspects of the universe, delving into the nature of being itself.
MimamsaAn ancient Indian school of philosophy focusing on ritual practices, religious duties, and linguistic analysis, emphasizing the interpretation of Vedic texts, rituals, and the nature of religious obligations.
MindThe faculty of consciousness, thought, perception, and emotion, encompassing cognitive processes, beliefs, desires, and intentions, central to human experience and self-awareness, and often debated in philosophy of mind.
MisologyA philosophical aversion or hatred towards reasoning, logic, or intellectual inquiry, expressing a disdain for rational discourse or the pursuit of knowledge, often associated with anti-intellectualism.
ModernismA cultural, artistic, and intellectual movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasizing innovation, experimentation, and a break from traditional forms, challenging established norms and embracing new ideas and technologies.
MohismAn ancient Chinese philosophical school founded by Mozi, emphasizing universal love (jianai), frugality, and practical governance, advocating for social harmony, pacifism, and the rejection of excessive rituals and ceremonies.
MonismA metaphysical view asserting the fundamental unity or oneness of reality, often applied to the mind-body problem, suggesting that the mind and body are ultimately the same substance or that all phenomena derive from a single source.
Moral AbsolutismAn ethical theory asserting that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of context, consequences, or cultural differences, positing objective moral principles that apply universally.
Moral Anti-realismA metaethical position denying the objective reality of moral values, moral facts, or moral truths, suggesting that moral statements lack inherent truth-value or referential correspondence to objective moral entities.
Moral CognitivismA metaethical stance asserting that moral judgments express propositions or beliefs that can be true or false, implying that moral statements convey cognitive content and can be subject to rational evaluation and truth conditions.
Moral ConstructivismAn ethical theory positing that moral truths or values are constructed or developed by human agents, often through social, cultural, or rational processes, emphasizing the active role of individuals or communities in shaping moral norms.
Moral Error TheoryA metaethical view asserting that all moral judgments and claims are fundamentally mistaken, ascribing nonexistent properties to the world, suggesting that moral statements are uniformly false due to the absence of objective moral facts.
Moral IntuitionismAn ethical theory positing that moral knowledge or moral truths can be directly intuited or apprehended, without relying on empirical observation or reasoning, emphasizing immediate moral awareness or intuition as a source of moral knowledge.
Moral Non-cognitivismA metaethical perspective denying that moral statements express beliefs, knowledge, or propositions, asserting that moral utterances convey non-factual or non-cognitive elements, such as emotions, preferences, or expressions of attitude.
Moral ObjectivismA metaethical position asserting the existence of objective moral values, moral facts, or moral truths, suggesting that certain moral statements correspond to objective reality, independent of individual beliefs or cultural opinions.
Moral ParticularismAn ethical theory rejecting the existence of general moral principles or rules, emphasizing the importance of context-specific considerations in moral judgment, asserting that moral decisions depend on particular situations and factors.
Moral RationalismAn ethical position asserting that moral knowledge or moral truths can be derived through reason alone, without the need for empirical observation or moral experience, emphasizing the role of rational reflection in moral understanding.
Moral RealismA metaethical view affirming the objective reality of moral values, moral facts, or moral properties, suggesting that moral statements are truth-apt and can accurately represent objective moral features of the world.
Moral RelativismA metaethical stance asserting that moral values, norms, or truths are relative and context-dependent, varying across cultures, societies, or individuals, denying the existence of objective or universal moral standards.
Moral SkepticismA philosophical position expressing doubt or uncertainty about the possibility of moral knowledge, moral truths, or objective moral standards, challenging the epistemic foundation of moral claims and ethical theories.
Moral SubjectivismA metaethical perspective asserting that moral judgments are expressions of individual preferences, attitudes, or emotions, suggesting that moral statements reflect personal feelings or opinions and lack objective or universal validity.
Moral UniversalismAn ethical theory positing the existence of universal moral principles or norms that apply to all individuals, cultures, or societies, suggesting that certain actions or values have intrinsic moral significance regardless of context.
Moral VoluntarismAn ethical theory asserting that the will or divine will determines moral values, suggesting that moral obligations are grounded in the decisions or commands of a higher authority, such as God or a divine being.
MysticismA religious or philosophical experience emphasizing direct, personal communion with the divine, spiritual insight, or union with ultimate reality, often involving contemplative practices, altered states of consciousness, and transcendent awareness.
Naïve RealismA theory of perception asserting that sensory experiences provide direct and unmediated access to the external world, suggesting that perceptions represent objective reality accurately and immediately without interpretation or mental processing.
Natural Law TheoryAn ethical and legal theory asserting that moral principles are inherent in the natural order, discoverable through reason, and guiding human conduct, emphasizing the harmony between natural law and moral duties.
NaturalismA philosophical perspective asserting that the natural world is the primary or only reality, denying supernatural or spiritual entities, and explaining phenomena, including consciousness, in terms of natural laws and processes.
NazismA political ideology associated with Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party), emphasizing extreme nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism, totalitarianism, and authoritarian rule, leading to atrocities and World War II.
NecessitarianismA metaphysical view asserting that all events, including human actions, are determined by necessity, denying the possibility of genuine contingency, free will, or alternative outcomes, often associated with determinism.
Negative UtilitarianismAn ethical theory emphasizing the minimization of suffering or harm as the ultimate moral goal, suggesting that the focus of ethical actions should be on reducing negative experiences, pain, or dissatisfaction in the world.
NeoconservatismA political and social ideology emphasizing conservative values, assertive foreign policies, free-market economics, and a strong national defense, advocating for the promotion of democracy and American interests, often associated with interventionism.
NeoliberalismAn economic and political ideology emphasizing free markets, deregulation, privatization, and limited government intervention, seeking to maximize individual liberty and promote economic efficiency through market-oriented policies.
NeoplatonismA philosophical and religious system based on the teachings of Plato, emphasizing the existence of an ultimate reality (the One), hierarchical emanations, the soul’s ascent towards the divine, and the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment and unity with the transcendent, influencing various religious and philosophical traditions throughout history.
NeopythagoreanismA philosophical and religious movement inspired by Pythagorean teachings, emphasizing mathematics, spiritual purification, and the belief in the importance of numbers and their mystical significance in understanding the cosmos and divine principles.
NeotaoismA modern reinterpretation and revival of Taoism, emphasizing the Tao (the Way) as the fundamental principle underlying the universe, advocating for simplicity, naturalness, and harmony with the Tao, often blending traditional Taoist practices with contemporary insights.
NeuroethicsA multidisciplinary field exploring ethical, legal, and social implications of neuroscience, investigating topics such as consciousness, free will, moral decision-making, and the use of neurotechnologies, addressing ethical challenges arising from advances in neuroscience.
NeurophilosophyAn interdisciplinary field integrating neuroscience and philosophy, exploring the relationship between the brain, mind, consciousness, and philosophical concepts, investigating neural mechanisms underlying cognition, perception, and behavior to inform philosophical inquiries.
NeuroscienceA scientific discipline studying the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, examining neural structure, function, development, and disorders, advancing understanding of cognition, behavior, emotions, and neurological conditions.
NeurotheologyAn interdisciplinary field investigating the neural basis of religious and spiritual experiences, exploring the relationship between brain activity, religious beliefs, and mystical encounters, examining the neurobiological mechanisms underlying religious phenomena and transcendental states of consciousness.
Neutral MonismA metaphysical theory proposing that reality consists of a neutral substance or substance-neutral elements that give rise to both mental and physical phenomena, suggesting that mind and matter are two aspects of a unified, underlying substance.
New AgeA diverse spiritual and metaphysical movement encompassing various beliefs, practices, and therapies, emphasizing personal transformation, holistic healing, consciousness expansion, and alternative spirituality, drawing from Eastern and Western religious traditions, mysticism, and esoteric teachings.
New RealismA philosophical movement in the 20th and 21st centuries, challenging idealism and promoting a realist ontology, emphasizing the existence of mind-independent reality, objects, and properties, advocating for a direct and objective perception of the external world.
New ThoughtA spiritual movement emphasizing the power of positive thinking, visualization, and affirmations, promoting the idea that thoughts influence reality and can bring about healing, success, and prosperity, drawing from metaphysical and mystical traditions, including Christian Science and Transcendentalism.
NihilismA philosophical position denying or rejecting the existence of objective meaning, value, or purpose in life, asserting that life is ultimately meaningless, often leading to existential despair or embracing a radical rejection of traditional beliefs and moral values.
NominalismA metaphysical view denying the existence of universals or abstract entities, asserting that only particular objects or individuals exist, challenging the reality of general concepts, categories, or properties, often contrasting with realism and conceptualism.
NondualismA metaphysical and spiritual perspective asserting the fundamental oneness and unity of all existence, transcending the duality of self and other, emphasizing the indivisibility of the ultimate reality, often central to Eastern philosophies and mystical traditions.
Normative EthicsA branch of ethics addressing questions about what is morally right or wrong, good or bad, just or unjust, focusing on moral principles, rules, and theories that guide ethical behavior and evaluate moral actions and decisions.
NyayaOne of the six classical schools of Indian philosophy, emphasizing logic (nyaya) and epistemology, examining valid methods of acquiring knowledge, evaluating inference, perception, testimony, and comparison as means of knowledge, and analyzing categories of logical reasoning.
Object-oriented OntologyA metaphysical framework asserting the existence of non-human objects with inherent reality and agency, challenging anthropocentrism, and emphasizing the importance of objects, materials, and things in the philosophical discourse, often associated with speculative realism.
Objective IdealismA philosophical view asserting the existence of a transcendent, objective reality that is fundamentally mental or spiritual in nature, positing that the ultimate reality is an absolute consciousness or mind, often emphasizing the interplay between subjective experience and objective reality.
ObjectivismA philosophical system developed by Ayn Rand, emphasizing objective reality, reason, individualism, and rational self-interest, advocating for laissez-faire capitalism, egoism, and the pursuit of one’s own happiness as the highest moral goal.
OccasionalismA metaphysical theory asserting that all events and interactions, including causation between mind and body, are orchestrated by a divine being, denying direct causal relationships between created entities, suggesting that God coordinates every occurrence.
OntologyA branch of philosophy exploring fundamental questions about the nature of being, existence, reality, and categories of existence, investigating what entities exist and how they relate to each other, often addressing concepts of substance, properties, and causality.
OntotheologyA philosophical concept referring to the study of the divine or ultimate reality, exploring the relationship between ontology and theology, investigating the existence and nature of God, the divine, or absolute being, often intersecting with metaphysical inquiries.
Open IndividualismA metaphysical view positing that all conscious beings, past, present, and future, share the same underlying consciousness or identity, suggesting that individuality is illusory, and all experiences are manifestations of a singular, universal consciousness.
OrganicismA metaphysical perspective viewing reality as an organic, interconnected whole, emphasizing the organic unity of natural systems, social structures, or cosmic entities, often contrasting with mechanistic views and highlighting the interdependence of living organisms and their environment.
PaganismA diverse and contemporary religious movement encompassing polytheistic, nature-based, or earth-centered spiritual practices, often inspired by pre-Christian traditions, ancient mythologies, and reverence for the natural world, emphasizing the worship of multiple deities and natural forces.
Pancritical RationalismA philosophical framework advocating for critical scrutiny and continuous evaluation of knowledge, beliefs, and theories, emphasizing the importance of rational criticism, empirical testing, and openness to revising ideas in the pursuit of truth and understanding.
PandeismA theological and philosophical view combining elements of pantheism and deism, positing that a transcendent, impersonal God became the universe and is now identified with the totality of existence, suggesting a blend of God as creator and the universe as God.
PanentheismA theological perspective asserting that God is both immanent within the universe and transcendent beyond it, suggesting that the universe is contained within the divine, while God also extends beyond the physical cosmos, emphasizing a dynamic and evolving relationship between God and the world.
PanpsychismA metaphysical theory suggesting that consciousness or mind is a fundamental and pervasive feature of the universe, present in all entities, objects, or particles, asserting that consciousness is an intrinsic property of matter and the foundation of reality.
PantheismA religious or philosophical belief asserting that God or a divine presence is identical to the universe and everything within it, suggesting that the universe itself is sacred and divine, and that all phenomena, forces, and life forms are manifestations of the divine presence, emphasizing a deep interconnectedness between all things and a reverence for the natural world.
ParticularismAn ethical theory emphasizing the importance of context, circumstances, and specific details in moral decision-making, rejecting universal moral principles or rules, and suggesting that ethical judgments and actions should be based on individual situations and relationships.
PataphysicsA humorous and absurdist philosophical concept exploring imaginary and imaginary solutions, delving into the study of exceptions and imaginary phenomena, often characterized by surreal and nonsensical elements, challenging traditional scientific and metaphysical approaches.
Perception PhilosophyA branch of philosophy focusing on the nature of perception, exploring questions related to sensory experiences, sensations, and the way the mind processes sensory information, investigating topics such as perception of reality, illusions, and the relationship between perception and reality.
Perennial PhilosophyA perspective asserting the existence of a universal and timeless spiritual wisdom that underlies and unites all major religious traditions, emphasizing common mystical experiences, ethical principles, and metaphysical truths found across cultures and historical periods, often associated with Aldous Huxley’s writings.
PerfectionismAn ethical theory advocating the pursuit of moral and personal perfection as the highest aim of life, emphasizing self-improvement, virtue cultivation, and the realization of one’s full potential, often emphasizing the importance of reason, self-discipline, and intellectual and moral excellence.
PersonalismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the intrinsic value and dignity of individual persons, highlighting the significance of personal relationships, freedom, and moral responsibility, often advocating for social and ethical principles that prioritize the well-being and flourishing of individuals.
PerspectivismA philosophical view asserting that knowledge, truth, and reality are subjective and dependent on individual perspectives, experiences, and interpretations, suggesting that different viewpoints offer unique insights, challenging the existence of objective reality independent of perception.
PessimismA philosophical attitude or worldview emphasizing the inherent suffering, impermanence, and limitations of human existence, often expressing a negative outlook on life, human nature, and the possibility of meaningful or lasting happiness, contrasting with optimism and emphasizing existential struggles.
PhenomenalismA philosophical theory asserting that only mental phenomena or experiences (phenomena) are real and that physical objects or external reality are constructs of perceptions and sensations, suggesting that the existence of objects is dependent on being perceived or experienced.
PhenomenologyA philosophical approach focusing on the study of conscious experience and phenomena as they appear to individuals, exploring subjective perceptions, intentions, emotions, and meanings, emphasizing the description and analysis of lived experiences, often associated with philosophers like Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Philosophical AnthropologyA branch of philosophy examining human nature, essence, and existence from a philosophical perspective, exploring questions about the nature of humanity, consciousness, culture, and the meaning of being human, often intersecting with existentialism and phenomenology.
Philosophical SatanismA philosophical and symbolic interpretation of Satanism, emphasizing individualism, skepticism, and rebellion against religious and societal norms, often rejecting supernatural beliefs, focusing on personal empowerment, critical thinking, and embracing personal desires and passions.
Physical OntologyA branch of metaphysics exploring the fundamental nature of physical reality, investigating questions about the existence and properties of physical objects, substances, and forces, examining the structure of the physical world and the underlying principles governing the material universe.
PhysicalismA metaphysical position asserting that only physical entities and properties exist, denying the existence of non-physical or mental substances, suggesting that everything, including consciousness and mental states, can be explained in terms of physical processes and properties.
Platonic RealismA philosophical view attributed to Plato, asserting the objective reality of abstract entities or Forms (such as justice, beauty, and truth), positing that these Forms exist independently of human thought and perception, influencing the material world and serving as the ultimate reality and standard of truth.
PlatonismA philosophical system based on the teachings of Plato, emphasizing the existence of an objective and eternal reality of Forms or Ideas, asserting the immaterial nature of the soul, and advocating for the pursuit of knowledge, virtue, and the contemplation of the divine, often associated with the theory of recollection.
PluralismA metaphysical or epistemological view asserting the existence of multiple fundamental realities, truths, or principles, suggesting that diverse and irreducible elements coexist in various domains, encompassing moral, cultural, religious, and ontological pluralism, often promoting tolerance and diversity of perspectives.
Political RealismA political philosophy emphasizing the centrality of power, national interest, and statecraft in international relations, asserting that states prioritize their security and survival, often involving pragmatic and realpolitik approaches, focusing on the balance of power and the pursuit of strategic advantages.
PopulismA political ideology or movement advocating for the interests and concerns of ordinary people against elites, emphasizing the voice of the majority, nationalism, and anti-establishment sentiments, often critiquing traditional political institutions and promoting direct democracy and grassroots participation.
PosadismA fringe socialist and UFO conspiracy theory advocating for the establishment of communism and international socialism after a nuclear apocalypse, often combined with beliefs in extraterrestrial intervention and advanced alien civilizations aiding humanity’s progress towards socialism.
PositivismA philosophical approach emphasizing empirical observation, scientific methodology, and verifiable facts as the foundation of knowledge, rejecting metaphysical or speculative claims, often associated with the Vienna Circle and logical positivism, promoting the verification principle and linguistic analysis.
PostcolonialismA critical theory and interdisciplinary approach examining the cultural, social, and political legacies of colonialism and imperialism, exploring issues of identity, power, representation, and resistance in postcolonial societies, often challenging Eurocentrism and colonial narratives.
PosthumanismA philosophical and cultural movement exploring the implications of advanced technology, artificial intelligence, and biotechnology on human evolution, identity, and society, questioning traditional concepts of humanity, consciousness, and ethical boundaries, often advocating for enhanced human capabilities and transhumanist ideals.
PostmodernismA philosophical and cultural movement critiquing modernity, rationality, and absolute truths, emphasizing the relativity of knowledge, language, and meaning, challenging grand narratives and meta-narratives, often associated with skepticism, deconstruction, and an embrace of multiple perspectives and hybridity.
PostpositivismA perspective challenging the positivist notion of objective reality, acknowledging the influence of language, interpretation, and theory on scientific observation, emphasizing the importance of social and historical context in scientific inquiry, often associated with critical realism and constructivist approaches.
PoststructuralismA theoretical framework challenging structuralism, emphasizing the instability of meaning, language, and identity, exploring the effects of power, discourse, and social constructs on knowledge and subjectivity, often associated with thinkers like Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, and Judith Butler.
Practical ReasonA philosophical concept addressing the capacity for practical judgment, moral decision-making, and intentional action, exploring the relationship between reason and action, often associated with ethical theories and moral philosophy, examining how values and practical principles guide human conduct and influence ethical choices, emphasizing the practical application of moral reasoning in everyday life situations.
Pragmatic EpistemologyAn epistemological perspective emphasizing the practical consequences and usefulness of beliefs, theories, or knowledge claims, assessing their validity and truth in terms of their practical effects on human experience and actions, often associated with the pragmatist philosophical tradition.
Pragmatic Theory Of TruthA theory of truth asserting that the truth of a statement or belief is determined by its practical consequences, emphasizing the usefulness, effectiveness, and pragmatic value of beliefs in guiding human behavior and solving problems, often associated with pragmatism and instrumentalism.
PragmaticismA philosophical concept introduced by Charles Sanders Peirce, emphasizing the pragmatic and practical aspects of philosophical inquiry, asserting that the meaning and significance of ideas and concepts can be understood through their practical consequences and effects on human experience and inquiry.
PragmatismA philosophical tradition emphasizing the practical consequences and practicality of ideas, beliefs, and theories, evaluating their truth and meaning based on their practical usefulness, often emphasizing empirical observation, experimentation, and the scientific method, with influential figures including William James and John Dewey.
PresentismA metaphysical view asserting that only the present moment and present events exist, denying the reality of past and future entities or events, suggesting that the past and future are not real but are mental constructs or subjective experiences, contrasting with theories like eternalism.
PrimitivismA cultural and philosophical perspective advocating for a return to simpler and more primitive lifestyles, often critiquing technological advancements, industrialization, and modern civilization, emphasizing a romanticized view of pre-modern societies and their perceived harmony with nature and simplicity.
ProbabilismAn epistemological and ethical theory asserting that beliefs and actions should be based on probabilities rather than certainties, acknowledging uncertainty and the limited knowledge humans possess, suggesting that decisions should be made based on the likelihood of outcomes and available evidence.
Process PhilosophyA metaphysical and philosophical perspective emphasizing the dynamic and interconnected nature of reality, asserting that the universe and all entities are in a constant state of flux and change, often associated with the process theology of Alfred North Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne.
Process TheologyA theological framework rooted in process philosophy, emphasizing the dynamic and evolving nature of God, positing that God is not immutable but interacts with the changing world, suggesting that the divine and the universe are interdependent, influencing each other in a continuous process of becoming.
ProgressivismA political and social philosophy advocating for social progress, reform, and improvement, emphasizing the pursuit of social justice, equality, and positive change through education, social policies, and political activism, often associated with liberal and left-wing movements supporting social reform and advancement.
Property DualismA philosophy of mind asserting that mental properties and physical properties are distinct and irreducible, suggesting that consciousness and physical phenomena are fundamentally different in nature, often associated with substance dualism and the mind-body problem.
PseudophilosophyA term used to describe beliefs, theories, or systems presented as philosophical but lacking sound reasoning, empirical evidence, or scholarly foundation, often characterized by pseudoscientific or mystical claims, misinterpretation of philosophical concepts, or logical fallacies.
Psychological EgoismA descriptive psychological theory suggesting that all human actions are motivated by self-interest and the pursuit of personal pleasure or happiness, asserting that individuals are ultimately selfish in their motives, contrasting with ethical egoism, which prescribes self-interest as a moral obligation.
Pure Practical ReasonA Kantian philosophical concept emphasizing the moral faculty of practical reason, allowing individuals to make moral judgments and act according to moral principles, distinct from theoretical reason, which concerns knowledge of the world, highlighting the capacity for moral decision-making and moral duty.
Pure ReasonA Kantian term referring to the faculty of reason dedicated to theoretical knowledge, logic, and understanding of the world, distinct from practical reason, which concerns moral judgment and ethical decisions, emphasizing rationality and intellectual abilities in acquiring knowledge about the external world.
Pyrrhonian SkepticismA form of skepticism derived from the teachings of Pyrrho of Elis, asserting that knowledge is unattainable and that all beliefs and opinions are equally uncertain, suspending judgment and achieving mental tranquility by acknowledging the limitations of human understanding, challenging dogmatism and certainty.
PyrrhonismAn ancient Greek philosophical school founded by Pyrrho of Elis, emphasizing skepticism, suspension of judgment, and mental tranquility, asserting that certainty and knowledge are unattainable, advocating for the examination of conflicting arguments to achieve a state of epoche (suspension of belief).
PythagoreanismA philosophical and religious movement based on the teachings of Pythagoras, emphasizing the significance of numbers, mathematics, and harmony in understanding the cosmos, exploring the mystical and metaphysical properties of numbers, influencing ancient Greek and later Western thought.
Quantum MysticismA speculative and controversial interpretation of quantum mechanics, suggesting connections between quantum phenomena and consciousness, spirituality, or mysticism, often drawing parallels between quantum uncertainty, observer effect, and Eastern philosophical concepts, criticized for misrepresenting quantum physics.
QuietismA philosophical attitude or religious perspective advocating for inner contemplation, passivity, and detachment from worldly concerns, emphasizing tranquility, acceptance of divine will, and spiritual introspection, often associated with religious mysticism and ascetic practices, discouraging active engagement with external matters.
RaëlismA religious and philosophical movement founded by Claude Vorilhon (Raël), emphasizing beliefs in extraterrestrial creation, human cloning, and the pursuit of pleasure and sensual experiences, promoting individual freedom, scientific advancements, and the belief in human potential guided by extraterrestrial beings.
RastafarianismA religious and social movement originating in Jamaica, emphasizing the worship of Haile Selassie I as a divine figure, advocating for African cultural identity, repatriation to Africa, and resistance against oppression, often associated with reggae music, cannabis use, and social activism.
Rational Choice TheoryA social and economic theory modeling human decision-making as rational choices made to maximize individual preferences and outcomes, emphasizing self-interest, rationality, and the weighing of costs and benefits in decision-making, often applied in various fields including economics, sociology, and political science.
Rational EgoismAn ethical theory asserting that individuals ought to act in their own self-interest and maximize their own happiness and well-being, emphasizing the pursuit of personal goals, desires, and preferences, often associated with thinkers like Ayn Rand and her philosophy of Objectivism.
RationalismA philosophical approach emphasizing the role of reason, logic, and intellectual faculties as the primary sources of knowledge and truth, advocating for the existence of innate ideas, universal truths, and the power of deductive reasoning, contrasting with empiricism, often associated with thinkers like René Descartes and Immanuel Kant.
RealismA philosophical position asserting the objective reality and existence of entities, properties, and phenomena, emphasizing the independence of the external world from human perception or consciousness, often applied to various domains such as metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics, contrasting with idealism and nominalism, often associated with the belief in the mind-independent existence of universals and abstract entities, influencing fields like metaphysics and philosophy of science.
ReconstructivismA philosophical approach emphasizing the reconstruction and reinterpretation of philosophical concepts, theories, or traditions, often in response to societal or cultural changes, seeking to adapt and modernize philosophical ideas while preserving their core principles, contributing to the evolution of philosophical thought.
ReductionismA philosophical approach advocating the explanation of complex phenomena in terms of simpler or more fundamental entities or principles, asserting that higher-level phenomena can be reduced to the interactions of smaller components, often applied in science, psychology, and philosophy of mind, raising debates about the adequacy of reductionist explanations.
Reductive MaterialismA form of reductionism asserting that mental phenomena and consciousness can be fully explained and reduced to physical and material processes, denying the existence of non-physical or mental substances, often associated with physicalism and the scientific study of the mind, raising questions about the nature of consciousness.
Reformational PhilosophyA philosophical movement rooted in the works of Herman Dooyeweerd and D. H. Th. Vollenhoven, emphasizing the role of presuppositions and religious ground motives in shaping philosophical thought, seeking to develop a Christian philosophy addressing diverse fields such as ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology, influencing Reformed Christian scholarship.
Relational DialecticsA communication theory exploring the dynamic tensions and conflicts in interpersonal relationships, emphasizing the interplay between contradictory desires for autonomy and connection, openness and privacy, stability and change, shaping the communication patterns and challenges within relationships, contributing to relationship research and therapy.
Relational EthicsAn ethical framework emphasizing the significance of relationships and social context in moral decision-making, asserting that ethical principles and obligations are shaped by interpersonal interactions, cultural norms, and relational dynamics, often associated with care ethics and feminist ethics, highlighting the importance of empathy, care, and social connections.
RelationalismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the importance of relations and relational properties in understanding the nature of reality, asserting that entities and qualities are defined by their relationships with other entities, often applied in various fields including metaphysics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind, challenging substance-based metaphysics.
RelativismA philosophical position asserting that truth, morality, or reality are relative and subjective, varying based on individual perspectives, cultural contexts, or historical conditions, denying objective or universal standards, often applied to ethical, cultural, and epistemological domains, raising debates about the nature of truth and moral principles.
Relevance LogicA non-classical system of formal logic, expanding classical logic to include additional logical connectives and principles, allowing for the representation of relevance and contextuality in logical reasoning, addressing issues related to irrelevant information and implications, often applied in computer science, artificial intelligence, and philosophical logic.
ReliabilismAn epistemological theory asserting that a belief is justified or knowledge is acquired if it is produced by a reliable cognitive process or belief-forming mechanism, emphasizing the reliability and truth-tracking ability of cognitive faculties, addressing challenges posed by skepticism and the Gettier problem, contributing to the study of justification and knowledge.
Religious HumanismA humanistic and religious worldview emphasizing the value of human dignity, ethics, and social justice within a secular or non-theistic framework, asserting that ethical principles and human values can be grounded in reason, empathy, and human experience, often promoting secular education, social activism, and human rights.
Renaissance HumanismAn intellectual and cultural movement during the Renaissance period, emphasizing the revival of classical learning, literature, and human-centered education, celebrating human achievements, creativity, and individual potential, influencing art, literature, philosophy, and education, promoting the study of classical texts and the liberal arts.
RetroactivismA social or political movement advocating for the return to past ideologies, values, or cultural norms, rejecting or resisting contemporary social changes, technology, or cultural developments, often driven by nostalgia and a desire to preserve or restore perceived traditional values, practices, or societal structures.
Role EthicsAn ethical theory emphasizing the moral significance of social roles, relationships, and duties within a community or society, asserting that ethical behavior is determined by fulfilling one’s role-based obligations and responsibilities, often associated with Confucianism and virtue ethics, highlighting the importance of social harmony and role-specific virtues.
RomanticismAn intellectual, artistic, and literary movement emphasizing emotion, imagination, nature, and individual creativity, reacting against the rationalism of the Enlightenment, celebrating subjective experience, intuition, and spontaneity, influencing art, literature, philosophy, and music, promoting the exploration of human emotions and the sublime.
SabellianismA theological doctrine asserting a modalistic view of the Trinity, suggesting that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are different manifestations or modes of the same divine being, denying separate personal existence, often associated with Sabellius and considered a heretical interpretation within Christian theology.
SankhyaA classical school of Indian philosophy, emphasizing the analysis of reality into its fundamental components, asserting the existence of distinct and eternal realities called purusha (consciousness) and prakriti (matter), exploring the nature of creation, existence, and liberation (moksha), influencing Hindu philosophical thought and yoga traditions.
SatanismA diverse range of beliefs and practices centered around the figure of Satan, often involving symbolic or atheistic interpretations, emphasizing individualism, personal freedom, and self-expression, rejecting religious dogma, promoting critical thinking, and challenging social norms, including both religious and secular forms of Satanism.
ScholasticismA medieval philosophical and theological tradition influenced by ancient Greek philosophy, particularly Aristotle, emphasizing the use of reason and logic to explore religious doctrines, reconcile faith and reason, and analyze metaphysical and ethical questions, characterizing medieval education and intellectual inquiry, influencing Christian theology and scholastic philosophy.
Scientific RealismA philosophical position asserting the reality and existence of unobservable entities, processes, and structures posited by scientific theories, suggesting that scientific explanations provide true or approximately true descriptions of the world, advocating for the scientific pursuit of objective knowledge about the natural world, despite the limitations of human perception.
ScientismA belief in the exclusive validity and authority of scientific knowledge and methods in understanding the world, often accompanied by the rejection or marginalization of non-scientific or philosophical inquiries, emphasizing the scientific approach as the only reliable path to knowledge, raising debates about the scope and limits of scientific inquiry.
ScotismA philosophical and theological tradition influenced by the teachings of John Duns Scotus, emphasizing the primacy of individual will and divine voluntarism, asserting the freedom of God’s will and the existence of individual entities (haecceities), contributing to debates on metaphysics, theology, and ethics within medieval scholasticism.
Secular HumanismA humanistic worldview emphasizing reason, ethics, and human potential within a secular or non-religious framework, asserting that moral values and ethical principles can be derived from human experience, rationality, and empathy, promoting secular education, human rights, social justice, and the pursuit of knowledge and well-being for all humans.
SecularismA philosophical and political stance advocating for the separation of religion from government, public institutions, and societal affairs, emphasizing the neutrality of the state in religious matters and promoting a secular and pluralistic society where individuals of various beliefs coexist, influencing modern democracies and the protection of religious freedom.
Semantic HolismA philosophical perspective asserting that the meaning of a word or expression is determined by its relationship to a network of interconnected concepts and other linguistic terms, emphasizing the interdependence of language and the contextual nature of meaning, contributing to debates in the philosophy of language and the study of language acquisition.
SensualismA philosophical position emphasizing sensory experience as the primary source of knowledge and the foundation of human understanding, often associated with empiricism and the idea that all knowledge is derived from sensory perception, contributing to epistemological debates about the origins of human knowledge.
SentientismA moral and philosophical stance asserting that moral consideration should be extended to all sentient beings, including humans and non-human animals, based on the capacity to experience pleasure and suffering, emphasizing the importance of reducing unnecessary harm and promoting well-being for all sentient creatures, contributing to discussions on animal ethics and effective altruism.
SentimentalismA moral and aesthetic theory emphasizing the role of emotions and sentiments in moral judgment and aesthetic appreciation, asserting that moral and aesthetic values are grounded in emotional responses and subjective feelings, often associated with the works of David Hume and the exploration of the moral sentiments.
ShamanismA diverse set of traditional and spiritual practices involving interactions with the spirit world, often through the guidance of shamans or spiritual leaders, emphasizing healing, divination, and ritual, found in various cultures and indigenous traditions worldwide, contributing to the study of religious and indigenous practices.
SikhismA monotheistic religion founded in the Indian subcontinent by Guru Nanak and emphasizing the belief in one God, equality of all people, selfless service, and devotion, often represented by the principles of honesty, compassion, and social justice, promoting spiritual growth and ethical living, contributing to religious diversity.
SingularitarianismA futurist and transhumanist belief in a technological singularity, a hypothetical point in the future when artificial intelligence or technological advancements will surpass human intelligence and control, potentially leading to profound societal and existential changes, often involving optimism about the potential benefits of advanced technology.
Skeptical TheismA philosophical response to the problem of evil in theism, asserting that human cognitive limitations and the mysterious nature of God’s purposes may render human judgments about the existence of God based on the presence of evil unreliable, often used as a defense against atheological arguments from evil.
SkepticismA philosophical stance emphasizing doubt and critical examination of beliefs, claims, and knowledge, often questioning the possibility of attaining certain or absolute knowledge, influencing various philosophical traditions and fields, including epistemology and ethics, promoting the rigorous assessment of evidence and arguments.
Social ConstructivismA theory asserting that knowledge, meaning, and reality are shaped by social interactions, language, and cultural contexts, emphasizing the role of human communities in constructing shared beliefs, norms, and values, often applied in social sciences, education, and the philosophy of science.
Social Contract TheoryA moral and political theory exploring the hypothetical agreement or contract between individuals in a society, emphasizing the establishment of rules, laws, and governance structures that protect individual rights and promote collective well-being, often associated with philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Social DarwinismA socio-political ideology applying Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human societies, often in a competitive and laissez-faire economic context, asserting that social and economic success results from natural competition and adaptation, raising ethical concerns and criticisms for justifying inequality and exploitation.
Social EcologyA philosophical and political perspective emphasizing the interconnection between social, environmental, and ecological issues, advocating for sustainable and harmonious coexistence with nature, often associated with the works of Murray Bookchin and influencing ecological movements and environmental ethics.
Social EudaimonismAn ethical theory combining eudaimonism and social ethics, emphasizing that individual flourishing and well-being are interconnected with the flourishing of the larger social community, asserting that ethical actions contribute to the common good, often associated with virtue ethics and communitarianism.
Social HolismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the interconnectedness and interdependence of individuals and society, asserting that social entities and phenomena cannot be reduced to the sum of individual parts, often associated with the works of philosophers like Emile Durkheim and addressing questions of social order, integration, and solidarity.
Social IdealismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the influence of societal ideals, values, and norms on individual consciousness, behavior, and identity, asserting that social structures and cultural narratives shape human experiences, often applied in sociology, cultural studies, and critical theory.
Social IndividualismA sociopolitical ideology highlighting the value of individual autonomy, liberty, and self-reliance within society, asserting that individual rights and interests should be prioritized over collective or state control, often associated with classical liberalism and libertarianism.
Social JusticeA political and philosophical concept emphasizing the fair and equitable distribution of resources, opportunities, and rights in society, often addressing issues related to inequality, discrimination, and human rights, promoting the ideal of a just and inclusive society, influencing political movements and ethical theories.
Social PhilosophyA branch of philosophy exploring fundamental questions about society, ethics, politics, and the nature of the social world, addressing issues related to justice, rights, authority, and human relationships, often intersecting with political philosophy, ethics, and sociology, contributing to the understanding of social structures and values.
Social RealismAn approach in philosophy and the social sciences emphasizing the objective reality and existence of social entities, structures, and processes, often used to analyze and explain social phenomena and challenges, emphasizing empirical research and critical analysis, contributing to sociological theory and understanding.
Social ScienceAn interdisciplinary field of scientific study dedicated to understanding human society and social behavior, using empirical methods and analysis to investigate aspects of human culture, interactions, and institutions, encompassing disciplines like sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics, contributing to the knowledge of human society.
Social SkepticismA skeptical perspective applied to social and political issues, questioning or critically examining various societal and political claims, practices, and institutions, often emphasizing the need for evidence-based reasoning and ethical considerations in social and political decisions.
Social StructuralismA sociological and anthropological perspective emphasizing the influence of social structures, institutions, and cultural systems on individual behavior and experiences, asserting that social phenomena are shaped by overarching structures, often applied in structural-functionalism and cultural anthropology.
Social UtilitarianismA variant of utilitarianism applied to social ethics, emphasizing that ethical actions and policies should aim to maximize overall social utility, happiness, or well-being, often considering the consequences and effects of policies and decisions on society as a whole, contributing to ethical debates on public policies and social welfare.
SocialismA political and economic ideology emphasizing collective ownership and control of the means of production, often seeking to reduce economic inequality and address social issues through state intervention, social programs, and the promotion of workers’ rights, influencing various socialist movements and political systems worldwide, advocating for the establishment of a classless and egalitarian society, often associated with thinkers like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, influencing social and economic policies, labor movements, and debates on capitalism and socialism.
SolipsismA philosophical position asserting that only one’s own mind and experiences are certain to exist, casting doubt on the external reality and existence of other minds or the physical world, often considered an extreme form of skepticism and raising questions about the nature of reality and knowledge.
SophismA philosophical and rhetorical tradition in ancient Greece, emphasizing persuasive techniques, rhetoric, and argumentation to win debates and influence others, often challenging established beliefs and exploring relativism, leading to debates about the nature of truth, ethics, and knowledge.
SpiritualismA belief system positing the existence of spirits, souls, or supernatural entities, often involving communication with the deceased through mediums or spiritual practices, emphasizing spirituality and the afterlife, influencing religious and cultural traditions and exploring questions about existence beyond the material world.
StoicismAn ancient Greek and Roman philosophical school emphasizing the development of virtue, self-control, and tranquility in the face of adversity, often advocating acceptance of events beyond one’s control and detachment from emotional disturbances, influencing ethics, psychology, and modern cognitive-behavioral therapy.
StructuralismA philosophical and intellectual movement in the 20th century, emphasizing the study of underlying structures and patterns in human culture, language, and cognition, often focusing on systems, relationships, and symbolism, contributing to fields like linguistics, anthropology, and literary theory, challenging traditional empirical methods.
Subjective IdealismA philosophical position asserting that reality is dependent on individual perception and consciousness, emphasizing the primacy of subjective experience in shaping the external world, often challenging the existence of an objective reality independent of perception, raising questions about the nature of reality and knowledge.
ŚūnyatāA concept in Buddhist philosophy, often translated as “emptiness,” emphasizing the absence of inherent existence or self-nature in all phenomena, asserting that all things lack permanent, independent substance, challenging concepts of selfhood and permanence, and promoting a deep understanding of impermanence and interdependence.
SupersessionismA theological and religious belief asserting the replacement or fulfillment of a previous religious covenant or tradition by a new revelation or religious community, often associated with Christian teachings about the New Covenant superseding the Old Covenant, raising questions about religious exclusivity and inclusivity.
SurrealismAn artistic and literary movement in the 20th century, emphasizing the expression of imagination, dreams, and the unconscious mind, often characterized by fantastical and illogical elements, challenging traditional artistic conventions and exploring the depths of human creativity and subconscious experiences.
SymbolismA literary and artistic movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasizing the use of symbols and metaphors to convey deeper meanings and emotions, often exploring mystical, dreamlike, and subconscious themes, influencing poetry, visual arts, and cultural symbolism, encouraging interpretations beyond literal meanings.
Synoptic PhilosophyA philosophical approach emphasizing the synthesis of diverse philosophical perspectives, theories, and traditions into a unified and comprehensive worldview, often seeking to reconcile conflicting ideas and bridge gaps between different philosophical schools, promoting interdisciplinary dialogue and understanding.
Systems PhilosophyA philosophical framework focusing on systems thinking and the study of interconnected, holistic systems in various fields, emphasizing the interdependence of components, relationships, and feedback loops, often applied in environmental studies, cybernetics, and organizational theory, promoting a holistic understanding of complex phenomena.
TaoismA philosophical and religious tradition originating in ancient China, emphasizing harmony with the Tao (the Way), natural spontaneity, simplicity, and balance, often associated with the teachings of Laozi and Zhuangzi, influencing Chinese culture, ethics, medicine, and martial arts, promoting a life in harmony with nature and the flow of existence.
TeleologyA philosophical concept exploring the purpose, design, and goals inherent in natural phenomena and human actions, often associated with the idea of final causes or ends, raising questions about the purposefulness of the universe and ethical actions, influencing fields like biology, ethics, and theology.
Temporal Parts TheoryA metaphysical theory positing that objects and individuals have temporal parts or stages extended across time, challenging the traditional view of enduring objects, often applied in debates about personal identity, persistence through time, and the nature of change, exploring questions about identity and change over time.
TemporalismA philosophical perspective emphasizing the reality of time and the temporal nature of events, asserting that time is an essential aspect of the universe, influencing debates about the nature of time, causality, and the experience of temporality, addressing questions about the past, present, and future.
TetralemmaA form of argumentation in classical Indian logic, offering four possible truth values or alternatives for a proposition: affirmation, negation, both affirmation and negation, and neither affirmation nor negation, allowing for nuanced and complex analysis of propositions and logical reasoning, often applied in Buddhist and Jain philosophy.
TheismA belief in the existence of one or more deities or gods, often involving worship, devotion, and religious practices, contrasting with atheism and agnosticism, influencing religious traditions, ethics, and cosmological beliefs, raising questions about the nature of the divine and the relationship between humans and the divine.
Theistic FinitismA theological position asserting that God created the universe with a specific purpose, plan, or end, emphasizing the limitation of creation and time, often associated with religious doctrines about the ultimate fulfillment of divine purposes, addressing questions about the nature of God’s intentions and the limits of creation.
ThelemaA religious and spiritual philosophy founded by Aleister Crowley, emphasizing the pursuit of one’s True Will, spiritual evolution, and the exploration of mystical experiences, often associated with ceremonial magic, occultism, and esoteric practices, influencing modern Western esotericism and alternative spiritual movements.
Theological NoncognitivismA philosophical position asserting that theological statements, claims, or concepts lack cognitive meaning or intelligibility, often because they do not refer to clear or coherent ideas, challenging traditional religious language and the concept of God, raising questions about the meaningfulness of theological discourse.
Theological RationalismA theological stance emphasizing the use of reason, logic, and philosophical argumentation in religious beliefs and doctrines, often advocating for the compatibility of faith and reason, influencing religious theology, apologetics, and the relationship between religious faith and intellectual inquiry.
Theological VoluntarismA theological position asserting the primacy of divine will or God’s sovereignty in determining moral and ethical standards, often challenging the existence of independent moral truths or values, emphasizing the contingency of moral obligations on God’s commands, influencing debates about divine command theory and moral objectivity.
TheologyThe study and exploration of the divine, spiritual truths, religious beliefs, and the nature of the divine, often conducted within specific religious traditions, addressing questions about the existence of God, religious doctrines, ethics, and the relationship between humanity and the divine, influencing religious practices and interfaith dialogue.
Theoretical EthicsA branch of ethics focusing on theoretical and foundational questions XXXX
TheosophyA spiritual and philosophical movement exploring the divine wisdom underlying the universe and the interconnectedness of all beings, often incorporating elements of mysticism, esotericism, and religious teachings from various traditions, emphasizing direct spiritual experience, karma, and reincarnation, influencing New Age movements and alternative spirituality.
Theravada BuddhismOne of the oldest forms of Buddhism, emphasizing the original teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), often practiced in Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, and parts of South Asia, focusing on the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, and meditation practices, with an emphasis on individual enlightenment and liberation from suffering.
Thick Ethical ConceptsEthical terms or concepts that encompass both descriptive and evaluative elements, often capturing complex moral qualities or social meanings, challenging the distinction between facts and values, raising questions about the nature of moral language and the integration of descriptive and normative aspects in ethical judgments.
Thick EthicalA meta-ethical position asserting that ethical statements or judgments involve both descriptive and evaluative elements, often combining factual claims about the world with moral evaluations, challenging the fact-value distinction and exploring the complexity of moral language and understanding.
ThomismA philosophical and theological system based on the teachings of Thomas Aquinas, emphasizing the synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, often exploring topics such as natural law, metaphysics, and ethics, influencing Catholic theology, ethics, and the relationship between faith and reason.
Transcendental ArgumentA philosophical argumentation strategy emphasizing the necessary conditions for the possibility of knowledge, experience, or rationality, often used to justify the existence of certain truths or principles, challenging skeptical positions and exploring the foundations of human understanding, influencing debates in epistemology and metaphysics.
Transcendental IdealismA philosophical position associated with Immanuel Kant, asserting that the mind shapes and structures human experience, influencing the way individuals perceive and understand the world, distinguishing between phenomena (appearances) and noumena (things-in-themselves), challenging traditional metaphysical claims about objective reality.
Transcendental PerspectivismA philosophical perspective asserting that knowledge and understanding are shaped by individual perspectives and interpretations, influenced by cultural, historical, and personal factors, often emphasizing the relativity of knowledge and the limitations of objectivity, challenging claims of universal truth and exploring the diversity of human understanding.
TranscendentalismA philosophical and literary movement in the 19th century, emphasizing the inherent goodness of people and nature, individual intuition, and the importance of self-reliance, often exploring the interconnectedness of all existence and the divinity of the individual soul, influencing American literature, environmentalism, and social reform movements.
TranshumanismA cultural and intellectual movement advocating for the enhancement of human capabilities and qualities through advanced technologies, often involving genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, and cyborg technologies, raising ethical, social, and existential questions about the future of humanity, consciousness, and the boundaries of human nature.
TransmodernismA philosophical and cultural perspective seeking to transcend modernist and postmodernist dichotomies, emphasizing a holistic and integrative approach to knowledge, spirituality, and social change, often promoting dialogue between diverse cultural and philosophical traditions, challenging fixed identities and boundaries, and exploring new ways of understanding reality and society.
Two-dimensionalismA philosophical theory positing that words and concepts have two distinct sets of meanings: one related to the actual world and another related to possible worlds, often applied in the philosophy of language and semantics, addressing issues of meaning, reference, and possibility in linguistic expressions and thought.
Type PhysicalismA metaphysical position asserting that mental states and processes are identical to specific physical states and processes in the brain, often addressing the mind-body problem and the relationship between consciousness and the physical world, influencing debates in philosophy of mind, neuroscience, and cognitive science.
UbuntuA Southern African philosophical and ethical concept emphasizing interconnectedness, community, and mutual responsibility, often translated as “I am because we are,” promoting a sense of shared humanity and the importance of collective well-being, influencing African ethics, social philosophy, and political movements, emphasizing compassion and empathy in human relationships.
Universal Ethical EgoismAn ethical theory asserting that individuals ought to act in their self-interest while recognizing the same principle in others, often emphasizing rational egoism and personal well-being, raising questions about altruism, morality, and cooperation, exploring the balance between self-interest and the interests of others.
UniversalismA philosophical and religious belief asserting the universal salvation, redemption, or moral progress of all beings, often associated with religious doctrines of divine mercy and ultimate reconciliation, challenging the concepts of damnation and exclusive salvation, promoting inclusivity and compassion in religious and moral discourse.
Utilitarian BioethicsAn approach in bioethics applying utilitarian principles to ethical dilemmas in medical and biological contexts, often focusing on maximizing overall happiness, well-being, or the reduction of suffering, addressing questions about medical interventions, resource allocation, and the ethical implications of biomedical technologies.
Utilitarian Ethical EgoismA moral theory combining elements of utilitarianism and ethical egoism, asserting that individuals should maximize their own happiness and well-being while also considering the overall happiness of society, often exploring the balance between self-interest and the greater good, raising questions about altruism, self-love, and moral obligations.
UtilitarianismAn ethical theory asserting that the best action is the one that maximizes overall happiness, often measured in terms of pleasure, well-being, or preference satisfaction, emphasizing the greatest good for the greatest number, influencing moral philosophy, social policies, and ethical evaluations of actions and policies.
Value PluralismA meta-ethical position asserting that there are multiple, irreducible values and moral principles that cannot be reduced to a single, overarching principle, often exploring conflicts between different values and the complexities of moral decision-making, challenging moral monism and exploring the diversity of ethical perspectives.
Value TheoryA branch of philosophy exploring the nature, origins, and evaluations of values, including ethical, aesthetic, and existential values, often addressing questions about the foundations of value judgments, cultural and historical variations in values, and the relationship between values and human experience, influencing ethics, aesthetics, and social philosophy.
VedantaA school of Indian philosophy emphasizing the study and interpretation of the Vedas, ancient sacred texts, often exploring concepts of Brahman (ultimate reality), Atman (individual soul), and the relationship between the individual and the divine, influencing Hindu theology, spirituality, and the development of various philosophical traditions in India.
VerificationismA philosophical principle asserting that meaningful statements or claims must be empirically verifiable or logically necessary, often associated with logical positivism and the Vienna Circle, challenging metaphysical and religious assertions that cannot be empirically confirmed, raising questions about the limits of meaningful language and the nature of truth.
VerismA philosophical position emphasizing truth as the highest value or the ultimate criterion for evaluating beliefs, theories, or statements, often advocating for the pursuit of truth through reason, evidence, and critical inquiry, influencing scientific inquiry, epistemology, and the evaluation of knowledge claims.
Vienna CircleA group of philosophers and scientists in the early 20th century advocating for logical empiricism, emphasizing the verification principle, empiricism, and the application of formal logic to philosophy, aiming to eliminate metaphysical and meaningless statements, shaping the foundations of analytic philosophy and influencing the development of the philosophy of science.
Virtue EpistemologyA branch of epistemology focusing on the role of intellectual virtues in knowledge acquisition and justification, emphasizing traits like open-mindedness, curiosity, and intellectual courage, exploring the connection between virtues, beliefs, and truth, challenging traditional approaches to justification and knowledge, and emphasizing the cultivation of virtuous cognitive character.
Virtue EthicsAn ethical theory emphasizing the development of virtuous character traits, moral virtues, and ethical wisdom in moral decision-making, often associated with Aristotle, exploring concepts such as eudaimonia (flourishing) and phronesis (practical wisdom), emphasizing the importance of moral exemplars, personal integrity, and the cultivation of virtuous dispositions.
VitalismA philosophical and scientific belief asserting the existence of a vital force or life energy distinct from physical and chemical processes, often associated with living organisms, challenging mechanistic views of life, influencing early biology, medicine, and holistic approaches to health and healing, and raising questions about the nature of life and living beings.
VoluntarismA metaphysical or ethical theory emphasizing the role of the will or voluntary action in determining reality, moral values, or ethical principles, often associated with theological voluntarism asserting that divine will is the ultimate foundation of morality, influencing debates in theology, ethics, and the relationship between human agency and the divine.
VoluntaryismA political and ethical philosophy advocating for voluntary cooperation, non-aggression, and the absence of coercion in human interactions, often associated with libertarianism, emphasizing individual freedom, self-ownership, and voluntary exchange, challenging the legitimacy of state authority and advocating for decentralized, voluntary forms of social organization and governance.
WahdatAn Islamic philosophical concept emphasizing the unity and oneness of existence, often associated with Sufi mysticism, exploring the divine presence in all things and the interconnectedness of creation, emphasizing spiritual realization and the dissolution of individual identity in the divine, influencing Islamic philosophy, spirituality, and mystical traditions.
Wittgensteinian FideismA philosophical position combining elements of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy and religious fideism, emphasizing the limits of language and the ineffability of religious experience, often asserting that religious beliefs go beyond the scope of rational justification and language, influencing discussions on faith, reason, and the nature of religious belief.
Wu WeiA Taoist concept emphasizing “effortless action” or “non-doing,” advocating for natural spontaneity and harmony with the flow of the universe, often associated with Taoist philosophy, martial arts, and traditional Chinese medicine, emphasizing the importance of inner balance, intuitive action, and aligning oneself with the natural course of events.
WujoodAn Arabic term in Islamic philosophy meaning “existence,” often used in Sufi metaphysics to refer to the divine existence or reality, exploring the relationship between the individual soul and the ultimate reality, emphasizing the divine presence in all existence, and influencing discussions on mysticism, divine knowledge, and the nature of reality.
XenofeminismA feminist and techno-philosophical movement advocating for the use of technology to promote gender equality, challenging traditional gender norms, exploring the intersection of feminism and technology, emphasizing the potential of artificial intelligence, biotechnology, and digital platforms in advancing feminist goals, and raising questions about identity, agency, and social change.
YangismAn ancient Chinese philosophical school associated with Yang Zhu, emphasizing individualism, self-centeredness, and the pursuit of personal happiness and well-being, often challenging Confucian ethics and social norms, promoting a hedonistic approach to life, and exploring the balance between individual desires and social obligations.
ZemlyakA term in Russian philosophy and literature meaning “fellow countryman” or “compatriot,” often used to explore the sense of belonging, identity, and community, emphasizing the shared experiences and cultural ties among people from the same region or nation, influencing discussions on national identity, patriotism, and cultural solidarity.
ZenA school of Mahayana Buddhism emphasizing direct experience, meditation, and the attainment of enlightenment (satori or kensho), often associated with the practice of zazen (seated meditation) and koans (paradoxical statements or questions), emphasizing the direct transmission of wisdom from master to disciple, and influencing art, literature, and philosophy.
Zhuangzi’s DaoismA philosophical text attributed to Zhuangzi, a Daoist philosopher, emphasizing the Dao (the Way) as an ineffable, natural principle guiding the universe, advocating for spontaneity, simplicity, and harmonious living, often challenging social conventions, dualistic thinking, and rigid distinctions, and exploring the interconnectedness of all things in the Dao.
ZoroastrianismOne of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions founded by Zoroaster (Zarathustra) in ancient Persia, emphasizing the worship of Ahura Mazda as the supreme deity, exploring the dualistic conflict between good (holy spirit, Spenta Mainyu) and evil (destructive spirit, Angra Mainyu), emphasizing moral choices, ethical behavior, and the ultimate triumph of good over evil in the cosmic struggle.
ZurvanismAn ancient form of Zoroastrianism emphasizing Zurvan, the god of infinite time and space, often exploring the concept of eternal recurrence and the cyclical nature of time, challenging traditional dualistic views, influencing Gnostic and Manichaean thought, and raising questions about the nature of existence, destiny, and the eternal order of the cosmos.